Background: We evaluated the effect of particulate matter (PM) and cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on bronchial epithelial cell survival, as well as oxidative stress and autophagy levels. Moreover, we aimed to assess the effect of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the adverse effects of PM and CSE exposure.Methods: Normal human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cells) were exposed to urban PM with or without CSE, after which cytotoxic effects, including oxidative stress and autophagy levels, were measured. After identifying the toxic effects of urban PM and CSE exposure, the effects of NAC treatment on cell damage were evaluated.Results: Urban PM significantly decreased cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner, which was further aggravated by simultaneous treatment with CSE. Notably, pretreatment with NAC at 10 mM for 1 hour reversed the cytotoxic effects of PM and CSE co-exposure. Treatment with 1, 5, and 10 mM NAC was shown to decrease reactive oxygen species levels induced by exposure to both PM and CSE. Additionally, the autophagy response assessed via LC3B expression was increased by PM and CSE exposure, and this also attenuated by NAC treatment.Conclusion: The toxic effects of PM and CSE co-exposure on human bronchial epithelial cells, including decreased cell viability and increased oxidative stress and autophagy levels, could be partly prevented by NAC treatment.